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Chronology of Egypt Events

From 3100 BC To 641 AD









time line of egypt


Pharaonic Period


BC

c3100

    The pharaoh 'Menes' becomes the first ruler of a unified country

c2800

    The first stage of Stonehenge built in present day England. The horse is domesticated in Asia.

c2750

    First recorded exploration expedition from Egypt.

c2600

    The wheel comes into use in the Indus Valley.

c2650

    The Step Pyramid, first monumental building in stone, constructed for King Zoser at Saqqara

c2680 to 2258

    Old Kingdom - theocracy develops - Pyramid Builders.

    Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Mankaure built at Giza. The sphinx is sculpted from rock. Astronomers create a solar calendar based on 365 Days.

    Powerful and wealthy individuals have mastaba tombs.

c2500

    Polynesians begin migrating through the South Pacific.

c2400

    Date of earliest papyrus scroll with writing.

c2200

    Cultivation of grain and livestock in Europe.

c2160

    Climatic conditions hasten the end of the Old Kingdom

c2134 to 2040

    Egypt splits into provinces that war with each other. Famine results.

c2040

    The Middle Kingdom established by the Theban Mentuhotep

c1800

    Book of the Dead appears in tombs. It contains instructions for entering the afterlife and protective spells.

c1652

    Following the end of the Middle Kingdom much of Egypt is taken over by Asiatic rulers known as the Hyksos

c1567

    Theban forces complete the expulsion of the Hyksos. Dynasty 18 is established

c1550

    Last stage of Stonehenge completed.

c1500

    The Ebers Papyrus is written recording methods of diagnosis, treatment, spells and recipes for medicines. Earliest metalwork in South America.

c1490

    Queen Hatshepsut becomes the only woman to rule Egypt for any length of time

c1469

    Tuthmosis 111 becomes king upon the death of Hatshepsut. His reign sees the greatest extension of Egypt's military power

c1405

    Power and prosperity are merged to bring Egyptian civilization to its apogee under Amenhotep III

c1384

    In China, writing is well established by this time.

cl367

    Amenhotep's son-and successor adopts the name Akhenaten. breaks with the established religion, and sets up a new capital at Amarna

c1350

    Brief reign of Tutankhamun. whose tomb survived virtually intact until discovered in 1922

c1305

    Seti I. second king of Dynasty 19, partially restores Egypt's position abroad

c1295

    The Fall of Jericho.

c1286

    Harnesses II narrowly escapes defeat at the hands of the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh

c1269

    A peace treaty is signed between the Egyptians and Hittites

c1218

    Merenptah defeats an attempted invasion of Egypt by the Sea Peoples

c1182

    Harnesses III successfully defends Egypt against a determined land and sea assault by the Sea Peoples

c1080

    The New Kingdom ends. Rule of the country shared by the High Priest of Amun and two royal houses

c945

    Kings of Libyan descent establish Dynasty 22

c925

    King Sheshonq intervenes in Israel and sacks Jerusalem

776

    First Olympic Games in Greece.

c715

    Seizure of power in Egypt by Nubians

663

    Assyrians attack Egypt, sack Thebes, and leave vassal rulers in charge. Egypt enjoys a cultural 'Indian Summer'

650

    First papyrus arrives in Greece from Egypt.

625

    First coins struck at Lydia (present day Turkey)

605

    Egyptian force defeated by the Babylonians at Carchemish

600

    Birth of Lao Tzu the great Chinees philosopher founder of Taoism and author of the Tao Ti Ching (The Way and Its Power)

c563

    Birth of Buddha.

c551

    Confucius is born in China.

500

    The birth of the great general Sun Tzu the author of the Art of War (First treaty on Strategy)

525 to 332

    Persian army, under Cambyses. occupies Egypt

    Rebellion, Persians are repelled.

    Dynasty 30 Last of the Native Egyptian Dynasties.

    Dynasty 31 Second Persian Domination.

470

    The birth of Socrates the great Greek philosopher

c447

    The Parthenon built in Athens.

428

    The birth of Plato (the great Greek Philosopher)

384

    The birth of Aristotle (the great Greek Philosopher)

356

    The birth of Alexander the Great

332

    Alexander the Great defeats the Persians



Ptolemaic Period



332-305 BC

    Macedonian Rule- Alexander the Great frees Egypt from Persian rule. They declare him Pharaoh. He founds Alexandria which becomes one of the centers of learning and trade in the ancient world.

304-30 BC

    Ptolemaic Dynasty - Descendants of the Greek general Ptolomy (including Cleopatra) rule, after Alexander's death, but Egyptian Style is preserved. Ptolomaic Egypt had a large empire, at times including parts of Syria, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Lubya, Phonecia, and parts of other lands.

229 BC

    The library at Alexandria is founded with the mission to collect all the books in the inhabited world.

146 BC

    The Rosetta stone is cut. It contains writing in ancient Greek, Demotic, and hieroglyphics.

140 BC

    The Dead Sea scrolls are written.

36 BC

    Earliest Mayan monuments.


Roman and Byzantine Period



BC

30

    Roman Conquest - Cleopatra VII and Antony are defeated by Augustus Caesar. Major buildings are built in Egyptian style, but Greco-Roman features mix with Egyptian elements. Egypt becomes a source of wealth and grain. Occasional attacks by Ethiopians.

AD

38

    First outbreak of violence between Greeks and Jews in Alexandria

42

    The library at Alexandria burns. 40,000 of its 70,000 volumes burn.

82

    The Colosseum completed in Rome.

120

    Romans build Hadrian's Wall between what is approximately present day England and Scotland.

115

    Final struggle between the two races. Jewish popu-lation decimated

172

    Revolt of the Boucholoi in the Delta

c180

    Catechetical School established at Alexandria

201

    Persecution of Christians by Severus - many Egyptians killed

212

    All Egyptians are granted Roman Citizenship.

249

    Persecution of Decius

270

    Palmyran forces invade Egypt and temporarily take control of Alexandria

c270

    St Antony takes up the eremitical life

303

    Great persecution of Diocletian begins - heavy toll in Egypt

c320

    Pakhome sets up the first cenoebitic community

323

    Constantine becomes emperor - triumph of Christianity

325

    Council of Nicaea condemns Arianism

431

    The First Council of Ephesus (second in 439). The Egyptian Church enjoys a brief triumph in its doc-trinal battle with Constantinople

451

    Council of Chalcedon: Monophysitism declared a heresy. The Egyptian Church refuses to accept the decision and is cut off from Orthodox Christendom

570-623

    Prophet Mohammed, founder of Islam born.

600-900

    Mayan civilization reaches its height in Meso-America.

641

    The Arab assault on Egypt begins. In the following year the Byzantine forces capitulate and Egypt becomes a Muslim state






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