Chronology of Egypt Events
From 3100 BC To 641 AD
The pharaoh 'Menes' becomes the first ruler of a unified country
The first stage of Stonehenge built in present day England. The horse is domesticated in Asia.
First recorded exploration expedition from Egypt.
The wheel comes into use in the Indus Valley.
The Step Pyramid, first monumental building in stone, constructed for King Zoser at Saqqara
c2680 to 2258
Old Kingdom - theocracy develops - Pyramid Builders.
Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Mankaure built at Giza. The sphinx is sculpted from rock. Astronomers create a solar calendar based on 365 Days.
Powerful and wealthy individuals have mastaba tombs.
Polynesians begin migrating through the South Pacific.
Date of earliest papyrus scroll with writing.
Cultivation of grain and livestock in Europe.
Climatic conditions hasten the end of the Old Kingdom
c2134 to 2040
Egypt splits into provinces that war with each other. Famine results.
The Middle Kingdom established by the Theban Mentuhotep
Book of the Dead appears in tombs. It contains instructions for entering the afterlife and protective spells.
Following the end of the Middle Kingdom much of Egypt is taken over by Asiatic rulers known as the
Theban forces complete the expulsion of the Hyksos. Dynasty 18 is established
Last stage of Stonehenge completed.
The Ebers Papyrus is written recording methods of diagnosis, treatment, spells and recipes for medicines. Earliest metalwork in South America.
Queen Hatshepsut becomes the only woman to rule Egypt for any length of time
Tuthmosis 111 becomes king upon the death of
Hatshepsut. His reign sees the greatest extension of Egypt's military power
Power and prosperity are merged to bring Egyptian
civilization to its apogee under Amenhotep III
In China, writing is well established by this time.
Amenhotep's son-and successor adopts the name Akhenaten. breaks with the established religion, and sets up a new capital at Amarna
Brief reign of Tutankhamun. whose tomb survived virtually intact until discovered in 1922
Seti I. second king of Dynasty 19, partially restores Egypt's position abroad
Harnesses II narrowly escapes defeat at the hands of
the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh
A peace treaty is signed between the Egyptians and
Merenptah defeats an attempted invasion of Egypt by
the Sea Peoples
Harnesses III successfully defends Egypt against a determined land and sea assault by the Sea Peoples
The New Kingdom ends. Rule of the country shared by the High Priest of Amun and two royal houses
Kings of Libyan descent establish Dynasty 22
King Sheshonq intervenes in Israel and sacks Jerusalem
First Olympic Games in Greece.
Seizure of power in Egypt by Nubians
Assyrians attack Egypt, sack Thebes, and leave vassal rulers in charge. Egypt enjoys a cultural 'Indian Summer'
First papyrus arrives in Greece from Egypt.
First coins struck at Lydia (present day Turkey)
Egyptian force defeated by the Babylonians at
Birth of Lao Tzu the great Chinees philosopher founder of Taoism and author of the Tao Ti Ching (The Way and Its Power)
Confucius is born in China.
The birth of the great general Sun Tzu the author of the Art of War (First treaty on Strategy)
525 to 332
Persian army, under Cambyses. occupies Egypt
Rebellion, Persians are repelled.
Dynasty 30 Last of the Native Egyptian Dynasties.
Dynasty 31 Second Persian Domination.
The birth of Socrates the great Greek philosopher
The Parthenon built in Athens.
The birth of Plato (the great Greek Philosopher)
The birth of Aristotle (the great Greek Philosopher)
The birth of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great defeats the Persians
Macedonian Rule- Alexander the Great frees Egypt from Persian rule. They declare him Pharaoh. He founds Alexandria which becomes one of the centers of learning and trade in the ancient world.
Ptolemaic Dynasty - Descendants of the Greek general Ptolomy (including Cleopatra) rule, after Alexander's death, but Egyptian Style is preserved. Ptolomaic Egypt had a large empire, at times including parts of Syria, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Lubya, Phonecia, and parts of other lands.
The library at Alexandria is founded with the mission to collect all the books in the inhabited world.
The Rosetta stone is cut. It contains writing in ancient Greek, Demotic, and hieroglyphics.
The Dead Sea scrolls are written.
Earliest Mayan monuments.
Roman and Byzantine Period
Roman Conquest - Cleopatra VII and Antony are defeated by Augustus Caesar. Major buildings are built in Egyptian style, but Greco-Roman features mix with Egyptian elements. Egypt becomes a source of wealth and grain. Occasional attacks by Ethiopians.
First outbreak of violence between Greeks and Jews in Alexandria
The library at Alexandria burns. 40,000 of its 70,000 volumes burn.
The Colosseum completed in Rome.
Romans build Hadrian's Wall between what is approximately present day England and Scotland.
Final struggle between the two races. Jewish popu-lation decimated
Revolt of the Boucholoi in the Delta
Catechetical School established at Alexandria
Persecution of Christians by Severus - many Egyptians killed
All Egyptians are granted Roman Citizenship.
Palmyran forces invade Egypt and temporarily take
control of Alexandria
St Antony takes up the eremitical life
Great persecution of Diocletian begins - heavy toll in Egypt
Pakhome sets up the first cenoebitic community
Constantine becomes emperor - triumph of Christianity
Council of Nicaea condemns Arianism
The First Council of Ephesus (second in 439). The Egyptian Church enjoys a brief triumph in its doc-trinal battle with Constantinople
Council of Chalcedon: Monophysitism declared a heresy. The Egyptian Church refuses to accept the decision and is cut off from Orthodox Christendom
Prophet Mohammed, founder of Islam born.
Mayan civilization reaches its height in Meso-America.
The Arab assault on Egypt begins. In the following year the Byzantine forces capitulate and Egypt becomes a Muslim state
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