Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

The Most Complete and Detailed Timeline



The arragement of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt into dynasties is based upon the History which the Egyptian priest Manetho prepared under Ptolemy II in the third century B.C.









The Dynastic Lists have come down to us in the somewhat differing versions of the Christian writers Africanus and Eusebius of the third century A.D. while other passages of the History have been preserved in the work of Flavius Josephus of the first century A.D. (see W. G. Waddell, Manetho, The Loeb Classical Library, 1948).

Several Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt lists, such as those which must have been employed by Manetho in preparing his History, have fortunately survived.




timeline of ancient egypt

timeline of ancient egypt 2




Period

Prehistoric

  • Before 4000: settlements in the Fayum, at Merimde-Beni-Salame and El Omari in Lower Egypt and at Tasa and Badari in Upper Egypt.
  • 4000 B.C. to 3200 B.C.: the emergence from the stone age with the practical use of hardened copper.
    • Amratian: also called Early Predynastic or Naqadah I: Petrie's Sequence Dates (SD 30-40)
    • Cerzean: also called Naqadah II
      Early Gerzean (SD 40-50): corresponds to Middle Predynastic.
      Late Gerzean (SD 50-79): includes the ill-defined corpus of objects former¬ly termed Semainean or Late Predynastic and the transitional period leading up to Dynasty I sometimes called Protodynastic (including King Scorpion).


Archaic Period: 3200 to 2680 B.C.

    Dynasty I: 3200-2980 B.C.
      Menas
      • Narmer
      • Aha
      Zer (Ity): 19 + years
      Zet
      Wedymu (Khasety)
      Az-ib (Mer-pa-ba): 20 + years
      Semerkhet (Shemsu ?): 9 years
      Qay-a (Sen-mu)

    Dynasty II: 2980-2780 B.C.

      Ra-neb
      Hetep-sekhemuwy
      Netery-mu (Ny-neter): 22 + years
      Peribsen (Sekhern-ib Per-en-maat)
      Sened
      Khasekhem
      Khasekhemuwy: 17 years

    Dynasty III: 2780-2680 B.C.

      Sa-nekht
      Neterkhet (Zoser)
      Sekhem-khet
      Kha-ba (Tety
      Neb-ka (Neb-ka-ra)
      Huni (Hu): 24 years



Old Kingdom: 2680 to 2258 B.C.

    Dynasty IV: 2680-2565 B.C.

      Sneferu: 24 years
      Cheops (Khufu): 23 years
      Radedef: 8 years
      Chephren (Khafra): 25 (?) years
      Bikheris: 1 (?) year
      Mycerinus (Menkaura): 28 (?) years
      Shepseskaf: 4 years
      Thampthis: 2 years

    Dynasty V: 2565-2420 B.C.

      Weserkaf: 7 years
      Sahura: 14 years
      Neferirkara: 10 years
      Shepseskara (Isy): 7 years
      Neferefra: ? years
      Ne-user-ra: 30 (?) years
      Men-kau-hor: 8 years
      Isesy (Zedkara): 39 (?) years
      Unas: 30 years

    Dynasty VI: 2420-2258 B.C.

      Tety: 12 years
      Weserkara: 1 (?) year
      Pepy I: 49 years: Mernera co-regent in Pepy's 40th year.
      Mernera: 14 (?) years; 5 years of reign alone.
      Pepy II: 94 (?) years
      Mernera II: 1 year



First Intermediate Period: 2258 to 2040 B.C.

    Dynasty VII: Interregnum

    Dynasty VIII: (Memphite) 2258-2232

    Dynasty IX: (Heracleopolitan) 2232-2140 B.C.

      Khety I (Mer-ib-ra)
      13 kings of Turin Papyrus (including Khety II)

    Dynasty X: (Heracleopolitan) 2140-2040 B.C.

    Neferkara
    Khety III (Wah-ka-ra)
    Merikara
    Khety IV (Neb-kau-ra)

      Contemporaneous with Dynasty X:
        Dynasty XI in South: 2134-2040
          Mentuhotep I (Tepy-aa)
          Intef I (Seher-tawy)
          Intef II (Wah-ankh): 2118-2068
          Intef III (Nekht-neb-tep-nefer): 2068-2061
          Mentuhotep II (Neb-hepet-ra): 2061-2040
            (who bore Horus names Se-ankh-ib-tawy, Neter-hedjet, Sema-tawy)

    Fall of Heracleopolis to Mentuhotep II: 2040



Middle Kingdom: 2040 to 1786 B.C.

    Dynasty XI: United Egypt: 2040-1991

      Mentuhotep II: 2040-2010
      Mentuhotep III (Se-ankh-kara): 2010-1998
      Civil wars plus short reign of
        Mentuhotep IV (Neb-tawy-ra): 1998-1991

    Dynasty XII: 1991-1786 B.C.

      Amenemhat I (Sehetep-ib-ra): 1991-1962
      Sesostris I (Kheper-ka-ra): 1971-1928
      Amenemhat II (Neb-kau-ra): 1929-1895
      Sesostris II (Kha-kheper-ra): 1897-1878
      Sesostris III (Kha-kau-ra): 1878-1842
      Amenemhat III (Ny-maat-ra): 1842-1797
      Amenemhat IV (Maat-kheru-ra): 1798-1789
      Queen Sebek-neferura: 1789-1786



Second Intermediate Period: 1786 to 1570 B.C.

    Dynasties XIII-XIV: 1786-1680
      Period of political disintegration: circa 30 kings

    Dynasties XV-XVI (Hyksos): 1720-1570 B.C.
    (Local rulers at Thebes forming Dynasty XVI)

      Khian (Se-weser-en-ra)
      Apepi (Aa-weser-ra)
      Apepi (Neb-khepesh-ra)
      Aa-seh-ra
      Apepi (Aa-kenen-ra)

    Dynasty XV11: 1600-1570 B.C.

      Taa-aa
      Taa-ken (Sekenenra)
      Kamose (Waz-kheper-ra)



New Kingdom: 1570 to 1085 B.C.

    Dynasty XVIII: 1570-1349

      Ahmosel: 1570-1545
      Amenhotep I: 1545-1525
      Tuthmosis I: 1525-1508
      Tuthmosis II: 1508-1504
      Hatshepsut: 1504-1483
      Tuthmosis III: 1504-1450
      Amenhotep II: 1450-1423
      Tuthmosis IV: 1423-1410
      Amenhotep III: 1410-1372
      Akhenaten: 1372-1355
      Between 1355-1342
        Semenkhara
        Tut-ankh-amon
        Ay

    Dynasty XIX: 1342-1197

      Horemheb: 1342-1314
      Ramesses I: 1314-1313
      Sety I: 1313-1301
      Ramesses II: 1301-1234
      Merenptah: 1234-1222
      Amen-meses: 1222
      Siptah (Merenptah): 1222-1216
      Sety II: 1216-1210
      From 1210-1197
        Siptah (Ramesses)
        Irsu (?)

    Dynasty XX: 1197-1085

      Sety-nekht: 1197-1195
      Ramesses III: 1195-1164
      Ramesses IV-XI: 1164-1085



Period of Decline: 1085 to 663 B.C.

    Dynasty XXI: 1085-950 B.C.
    (Tanite Dynasty; priest kings in Thebes)

      From 1054-1009
        Smendes
        Herihor (Thebes)
      From 1054-1009
        Psusennes I (Pasebkhanu)
        Paynozem (Thebes)
      Amen-em-ipet: 1009-1000
      Sa-amon: 1000-984
      Psusennes II (Pasebkhanu): 984-950

    Dynasty XXII: 950-730 B.C.:(Bubastite) Libyan kings

      Sheshonql: 950-929
      Osorkon I: 929-893
      Takelot 1: 893-870
      Osorkon II: 870-847
      Sheshonq II: 847
      Takelot II: 847-823
      Sheshonq III: 823-772
      Pami: 772-767
      Sheshonq V: 767-730
        Partly contemporaneous with Dynasty XXII:
          Dynasty XXIII: 817 (?)-730 B.C.
            Dates only approximate for following kings.
            Pedibast: 817-763
            Sheshonq IV: 763-757
            Osorkon III: 757-748
            Takelot III: 748-730
            Rud-amon: 748-730
            Osorkon IV: 748-730

    Dynasty XXIV: 730-715 B.C.

      Tef-nekht: 730-720
      Bocchoris (Bakenrenef): 720-715
        Partly contemporaneous with Dynasties XXIII—XXIV:
          Dynasty XXV: (Kushite: Ethiopian) 751-656 B.C.
            Kashta
            Piankhy: 751-716:Conquest of Egypt: Circa 730
            Shabako: 716-701
            Shebitku: 701-690
            Taharqa:690-664
            Tanwetamani: 664-653

    Assyrians in Egypt: 671 sack of Memphis under Esarhaddon; 663 sack of Thebes by Ashurbanipal; 658-651 Psamtik I gains control of country.



SAITE PERIOD: 663 to 525 B.C.

    Dynasty XXVI: 663-525 B.C.

      Psamtik I (Wah-ib-ra): 663-609
      Necho (Nekau, Wehem-ib-ra): 609-594
      Psamtik II (Nefer-ib-ra): 594-588
      Apries (Haa-ib-ra): 588-568
      Amasis (Ahmes-sa-neith, Khnum-ib-ra): 568-525
      Psamtik III (Ankh-ka-en-ra): 525



Foreign Domination


Persian Period: 525 to 332 B.C.


    Dynasty XXVII: 525-404 B.C. FIRST PERSIAN DOMINATION:

      Cambyses: 525-522
      Darius I: 522-485
      Xerxes: 485-464
      Artaxerxes I: 464-424
      Darius II: 424-404

    Dynasty XXVIII: 404-398 B.C.

      Amyrtaios: 404-398

    Dynasty XXIX: 398-378 B.C.

      Nepheritis I (Naifaaurud): 398-392
      Akhoris (Haker): 392-380
      Psammouthis (Psamut): 380-379
      Nepheritis II (Naifaaurud): 379-378

    Dynasty XXX: 378-341 B.C.

      Nectanebo I: (Nekht-nebef) 378-360

      Teos: 361-359
      Nectanebo II (Nekht-hor-heb): 359-341

    Dynasty XXXI: 341-332 B.C. SECOND PERSIAN DOMINATION:

      Artaxerxes III (Ochos): 341-338
      Arses: 338-335
      Darius III (Codoman): 335-330



Ptolemaic Period: 332-30 B.C.

    Alexander the Great: 332-323
    Ptolemy I (Soter): 323-283
    Ptolemy II (Philadelphus): 283-246
    Ptolemy III (Euergetes I): 246-221
    Ptolemy IV (Philopator): 221-205
    Ptolemy V (Epiphanes): 205-180
    Ptolemy VI (Philometor) 180-145
    Ptolemy VII (Neos Philopator): 145 (Eupator also in 145)
    Ptolemy VIII (Euergetes II): 145-116
    Ptolemy IX (Soter II): 116-108, 88-80
    Ptolemy X (Alexander): 108-88
    Ptolemy XI (Alexander): 80
    Ptolemy XII (Auletes): 80-51
    Ptolemy XIII: 51-48
      CleopatraV II
    Ptolemy XIV: 47-44
      Cleopatra VII
    Cleopatra VII: 43(?)-30
      Ptolemy XV (Caesarion)



Roman period: 30 B.C. to A.D. 324 (Accession of Constantine)



Byzantine or Coptic Period: A.D. 324-640.



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