Timeline of Ancient Egypt

The Pharaohs, Dynasties, Chronology of Events

The Timeline of Ancient Egypt, the arrangement of the Egyptian Pharaohs into dynasties is based upon the History which the Egyptian priest Manetho prepared under Ptolemy II in the third century B.C.

Timeline of ancient egypt

timeline of ancient egypt

Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt Chronology of Events

Ancient Egypt Chronology of Events


The Dynastic Lists have come down to us in the somewhat differing versions of the Christian writers Africanus and Eusebius of the third century A.D. while other passages of the History have been preserved in the work of Flavius Josephus of the first century A.D. (see W. G. Waddell, Manetho, The Loeb Classical Library, 1948).

Several Pharaohs lists, such as those which must have been employed by Manetho in preparing his History, have fortunately survived.

The most important of these is the Turin Papyrus which was written in the reign of Ramesses II, but three other lists of the New Kingdom were inscribed upon monuments at Abydos, Saqqarah, and Karnak.

There is also a portion of the Annals of the early dynasties preserved on the Palermo Stone and its related fragments and prepared in Dynasty V.

The Timeline of Ancient Egypt dating previous to Dynasty XII can be given only approximately. In the list of Pharaohs of the Turin Papyrus (G. Farina, II Papiro del Re, 1939, pp. 31-35), the length of the period from Menes to the end of Dynasty VIII is stated to be 955 years.

The timeline of Ancient Egypt from the beginning of Dynasty VI to the beginning of Dy-nasty IX is given as 187 years, while the length of Dynasty XI is 142 years.

From the Middle Kingdom onwards, timeline of ancient egypt records have been preserved of a number of lunar dates and observations of the rising of the star Sothis (Sirius) in conjunction with the sun which has a cyclical recurrence at approximately every 1460 years.

Other dates for the New Kingdom are taken from within the possible range of years for the beginning of each reign similarly calculated by Borchardt in Die Mittel zur zeitlichen Festlegung von Punkten der agyptischen Geschichte, (1935).

The comparative timeline of Ancient Egypt and Western Asia has been the subject of much discussion in recent years.

Evidence is steadily accumulating from new excavations so that our information is in a state of constant growth requiring frequent revision of tentatively formed conclusions.

It is now generally assumed that the Djemdet Nasr Period in Mesopotamia corresponds roughly in time to that in Egypt called Protodynastic, leading into Dynasty I.

The evidence of relations between the two countries remains of a somewhat tenuous nature and requires further clarification.

There are many tangible signs of Egypt's contacts abroad in the Old and Middle Kingdoms but the underlying political situation is still obscure.

At the end of the Middle Kingdom, when Egypt played no part in the affairs of northern Syria, a much clearer picture can be gained from the Mari letters.

The chronological evidence, with its bearing on the date of Hammurabi of Babylon, has been discussed in connection with the Khorsabad King List and the stratigraphy of a site in the Antioch Plain by Sidney Smith in Alalakh and Chronology (1940), and American Journal of Archaeology, 49 (1945), pp. 1-24.

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